It is responsible for the interpretation of the commands contained in the machine code (G - code). The effect of its work are the basic signals for heaters, motors and fans. It is responsible for the interpretation of accelerations, temperature correction tables and many other factors. Well-tuned firmware is an important element of machine calibration, because it is responsible for the regulation of breaks, accelerations and other key parameters for good performance of the device.



This is a normalized programming language adjusted to control CAM machines. In simple words, the G-code string includes
machine instructions – in what direction, how fast and along which axis to move. The code for printers is generated by
slicing software (slicers). It stores all the data on subassembly temperatures and the revs of motors in a precision sequence
that results in moving the hotend and defines the extruder behavior. The code commands are sent line by line to the printer
controller processor during the printing process. The processor interprets the code based on its software and sends specific
signals to particular components.


High-Impact Polystyrene – a styrene polymer. It is used mainly in 3D printing as a material for printing support structures for ABS plastic. It is soluble in d-limonene. It features a high impact resistance and a low flexibility.


This is an extruder part, driven by a stepper motor. It makes it possible to accurately feed the plastic wire to the printer
nozzle thanks to its concave, “toothed/knurled” recess that “bites” into the plastic wire. An element that strictly cooperates
with the knurl is the clamp providing a correct contact between the knurl and the filament.


A head component coming into direct contact with the print. The nozzle heated to temperature specific for a material
makes it flow and forms a thread of plastic with a rated nozzle diameter. The 3DGence ONE printer as standard is equipped with a 0.4 mm nozzle. The nozzle outlet diameter affects the available resolutions, print speed and accuracy.


A group of polyamide materials developed by DuPont company. Currently, these are used also for producing resistant
filaments for 3D prints. Its main advantage includes its high mechanical and chemical strength, possibility of further processing and coloring with textile dyes. Prints feature also some flexibility and resistance to rupture.


This is a popular format of 3D files. It may contain an additional MTL (Material Template Library) file irrelevant for FFF print, containing information on material libraries defined for the model. OBJ files apart from the geometry description, apex layout and normal orientations includes information on UV coordinates for textures. It is read by the 3DGence Slicer program.


This is a shape of the part of a model with special significance from the point of FFF printing. An overhang can be found
where a model plane forms an overhang over the working table or other model part. The 3DGence Slicer software identifies
those areas and analyzes the overhang angle in relation to the working table. If the angle exceeds the value of limit angle predefined in the software, the 3DGence Slicer program automatically generates support structures for such a surface.


Polylactide – a lactic acid polymer – produced in industrial quantities with use of eco-friendly methods. The main sources
for initial materials include grains, e.g. cornflour or bacterial cultures. This is a basic material for FFF technology 3D printing.
Low costs, no thermal shrinkage, good adhesion to the bed and multiple filler and color variants make the PLA the most versatile and most commonly used filament. During printing it gives off a weak, neutral odor, does not emit harmful substances and is fully biodegradable. It is more fragile and susceptible to mechanical damage than ABS, that’s why its use to manufacture the prototypes of mechanical devices is limited.


Polyvinyl alcohol – a water soluble vinyl alcohol polymer. It is used to produce water-soluble filaments, perfectly suitable
for printing support structures in dual-material printing. The model itself is printed with an insoluble plastic (the most
commonly with PLA), which allows for its accurate cleaning in water bath. Using an ultrasound washer results in significant
acceleration of the process.